选择正确的光谱仪

光谱仪是一种测量装置,允许您分解和分析构成辐射或离子束的光谱的基本组件。例如,光谱仪可用于识别材料或分子。

This buying guide will focus on the different spectrometry techniques, including what can be analyzed with a spectrometer, the advantages and disadvantages of spectrometers on the market, and the criteria for choosing a spectrometer.

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  • 如何选择光谱仪?

    There are two main categories of spectrometry:辐射光谱和质谱.

    Radiation spectrometry(UV-VI,IR,X射线,伽马射线)使得能够通过其与吸收,散射或发射的辐射相互作用来分析材料的结构。

    弥撒spectrometryallows the molecular structure of a gas to be analyzed by ionization.

    您应该选择的光谱仪类型取决于要检测的材料以及分析是否侵入(样本的破坏)。

    The main selection criteria for your spectrometer should be:

    • Sensitivity and detection limit
    • Wavelength range

    If you need to analyze the color of a sample, you will need a spectrometer covering the visible spectrum, between 360 and 740 nm.

    • Resolution (the ability of the spectrometer to distinguish between two wavelengths close together)

    If the sample spectrum has sharp peaks separated by a distance of at least 0.5 nm, you will need a spectrometer with a resolution of at least 0.5 nm.

    除了您需要的波长和分辨率范围外,还有次要标准可以帮助您做出正确的选择:

    • The overall size of the equipment, especially if it will need to be transportable
    • 成本
    • The analysis speed
    • The signal-to-noise ratio
    • 线性
    • 动态范围
    • 热稳定性
    • 耐用性
  • 为什么选择红外光谱仪?

    Bruker Optics FTIR infrared spectrometer

    Infrared spectrometryis a type of absorption spectrometry that makes it possible to determine the nature of the chemical bonds present in a molecule. Absorption results from the vibration and rotation of the molecules.

    它用于测量暴露于红外光的样品的响应。

    It offers non-invasive analysis and quantitative determinations with minimal sample preparation.

    这有什么用途?

    • The infrared spectrometer is suitable for surface analysis in the semiconductor industry or in order to quickly determine the amount of water in seeds for agriculture.
    • It can also be used to identify raw materials and components in the chemical, cosmetics, plastics or pharmaceutical industries.
    • It is useful for monitoring highly absorbent solid products and providing information such as protein, fat, fiber and starch content.
    • 红外光谱仪可作为实验室模型或作为现场分析的便携式模型。

    缺点

    • 当不同化学成分的数量大时,光谱变得复杂并且难以解释,特别是对于有机化合物。
  • 为什么选择UV / Vis光谱仪?

    U-Therm International UV/VIS spectrometer

    UV/VIS spectrometry(ultraviolet and visible wavelengths) is a type of absorption spectrometry that enables the analysis of low-complexity liquid or gas samples.

    A lamp, usually a deuterium one, turns a visible light spectrometer into a UV-visible unit that can measure from 190 to 1100 nm.

    用UV-Vis光谱仪进行分析与红外光谱仪互补。它可以更好地定量样本的组件。

    这有什么用途?

    • UV-Vis光谱仪用于检查食品工业中过滤器的效率。

    缺点

    • This type of spectrometer is easy to use, but can only analze simple samples. Due to the width of the molecular absorption bands, not all components of a complex mixture can be observed in the absorption spectra.
  • 为什么choose an atomic absorption spectrometer?

    Analytik Jena原子吸收光谱仪

    原子吸收光谱法is used to determine the concentration of metallic elements in a solution previously heated with a flame or in a furnace.

    A high-temperature flame evaporates the water from the sample, dissociating it into ions. This manipulation results in a change in the light intensity measured by the detector to determine the concentration of the sample.

    原子吸收光谱法具有非常选择性的优点。

    这有什么用途?

    • 原子吸收光谱法is used in mining exploration, in the pharmaceutical industry or in environmental research.
    • This high-precision analysis is ideal for environmental testing, toxicology and quality control laboratories.

    缺点

    • 在进行定性和定量分析之前,必须制备初始溶液,即用合适的溶剂溶解化合物。
  • 为什么选择X射线光谱仪?

    Thermo Scientific X射线光谱仪

    X射线spectrometryis a type of absorption spectrometry that determines the composition of a material by exciting it with X-rays.

    这有什么用途?

    • It is used in geology to determine the composition of a rock.
    • In the nuclear industry, it is used to detect uranium, whether for mining purposes or to look for impurities in the fuel.
    • 它还用于废水处理,以识别要治疗的材料。
  • 为什么choose an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer?

    Malvern Panalytical X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    X射线fluorescence spectrometry是一种排放光谱法,其测量由X辐射的吸收激发的原子发出的X辐射。

    原子也可以在高能量或温度水平下兴奋,然后产生X射线。

    这有什么用途?

    • 它适用于测量非常低的浓度。
    • 它用于元素化学分析。
    • 例如,它用于检测涂料或管道中铅的存在,或者确定建筑或工业中涂层的厚度和组成。

    缺点

    • 荧光技术比吸收技术更复杂,因为待分析的颗粒必须首先通过单色辐射激发。
  • 为什么choose a magnetic resonance spectrometer?

    牛津仪器NMR光谱仪

    磁共振光谱是用于确定有机化合物结构的最先进的技术。特别是,它提供整个分子的结构数据,而且提供有关有机反应的信息。

    这有什么用途?

    • 它用于医疗MRI(磁共振成像),因为它允许获得人体的不同组织的高对比度图像。
    • 该技术还用于检测炸药或对极性冰盖的研究。
  • 为什么choose a Raman spectrometer?

    Bruker Optics Raman spectrometer

    Raman spectrometryis a type of diffusion spectrometry that enables the analysis of the chemical structure of a sample and the identification of the compounds present in a similar way to infrared spectrometry, but on smaller samples and with better resolution.

    拉曼光谱仪允许您分析材料的外部结构的分子组成。

    这有什么用途?

    • It is used in archeology for non-destructive analysis.
    • 它使有机分子的识别, polymers, biomolecules and inorganic compounds.
    • 它允许您映射混合物中组件的分布,例如赋形剂中的药物;确定不同类型的碳(金刚石,石墨,无定形碳,亚氨烷碳,纳米管)及其相对比例的存在;并测量半导体的应力和晶体结构。
  • 为什么选择质谱仪?

    Shimadzu Mass Spectrometer

    A质谱仪允许您确定气相中的分子质量。
    It can be used for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis: each component has a unique, or almost unique, mass spectrum that can be compared with mass spectrum databases, allowing it to be identified and quantified.

    这种类型的光谱仪适用于非常小的样本,并可以知道它们由它们组成的元素。

    这有什么用途?

    • It is used for the rapid analysis of samples in doping control, food safety and the pharmaceutical industry.

    缺点

    • 这种技术不适用于非常大的分子。
  • What are spectrometers used for?

    光谱仪及其应用概述

    光谱仪 类型 应用程序
    IR. 吸收 有机分子的表征和鉴定。
    药品,化学食品加工行业的质量控制。
    UV-vis. 吸收 药品,化学食品加工行业的质量控制。
    Atomic absorption 吸收 Concentration of metallic elements.
    X射线 吸收 半导体质量控制。
    Uranium detection in the nuclear field.
    地质岩石成分的识别。
    荧光X. 荧光发射 有机化学分析
    生物化学分析
    磁共振 磁场 有机化学分析
    Raman Diffusion Identification of banned or dangerous materials.
    考古学(分子分析)
    弥撒 电离 Toxicological analysis, anti-doping, medical analysis, environmental analysis, etc.
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