选择正确的显微镜

The microscope is an optical instrument that allows detailed observation of extremely small samples through a lens.

显微镜用于许多科学和工业中的应用。它们特别用于质量控制(半导体加工,冶金分析),而且用于实验室(医学成像,细胞研究)。

有两种类型的显微镜:光学显微镜和电子显微镜。在本指南中,一旦呈现了这两种类型的显微镜之间的差异,就会讨论光学显微镜。

View microscopes

  • 如果您选择光学或电子显微镜?

    Carl Zeiss显微镜光学显微镜

    There are two main types of microscopes:光学显微镜electron microscopes

    The main difference between these two types of microscopes lies in the way the sample to be observed is prepared and passed through. This is what determines the quality of the image (magnification, color, black and white).

    使用光学显微镜,将制剂放在玻璃载玻片上并用辐射light rays:

    • The resolution is in the range of 200 nanometers.
    • For example, it is possible to observe an entire cell.
    • However, the magnification is rather limited, meaning that details smaller than 200 nanometers cannot be observed.

    With an electron microscope, an电子束通过准备好的样品:

    • The magnification is higher.
    • 但是,图像是黑色和白色。
    • Colors can be added digitally on the computer afterwards.

    Jonel电子显微镜

    There are two types of electron microscopes:scanningtransmission

    • 扫描电子显微镜(SEM):
      • 这种类型的显微镜发射扫过制备样品表面的电子。
      • 该分辨率非常高,在0.4至20纳米的范围内,这使得可以区分在小于纳米的两点之间。
      • The relief image enables the structure and the form of the sample to be studied.
      • This type of microscope is mainly used by biological research institutes to obtain the shape of cells or organs.
      • 他们可以在150,000到一百万欧元之间成本。
    • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM):
      • This type of microscope emits electrons that go through the prepared sample.
      • 这意味着所得到的图像甚至提供了样本的最微小细节。
      • This type of microscope is used in cell biology because it is the only way to obtain accurate images of the inside of a cell.
  • 你应该选择什么类型的光学显微镜?

    有几种类型的光学显微镜可供选择,具体取决于您想要观察的样本。首先,你必须选择uprightmicroscopes.

    直立显微镜:

    • 将光源放在样品下方,并从上方观察样品。
    • The upright microscope is used for observation and magnification of specimens on slides.

    倒置显微镜:

    • 光源放置在样品上方,并且物镜如下。
    • 倒置显微镜用于观察体外培养中的细胞,并使得可以检查位于培养皿底部的厚物体或物体。

    Microscopes are also available with different types of eyepieces.

    Optika Srl monocular microscope

    单眼显微镜:

    • 只用一只眼睛观察样品。
    • They are inexpensive.
    • 它们是不舒服的,不适合长期观察。

    ATM双目显微镜

    双目显微镜:

    • With these microscopes, you observe the sample with both eyes, which reduces eye and muscle fatigue.
    • 它们适合长时间使用。
    • 它们也用于立体观察,以便感知样品的深度。

    梯形三童显微镜

    三曲显微镜:

    • Both eyes are used to observe.
    • 一种相机,作为一种“第三只眼线”的相机连接到显微镜的上部到胶片和记录观察。
    • 这些主要用于经验丰富的用户。
    • 它们非常昂贵。

    Keyence digital microscope

    Digital microscopes:

    • They have an LCD screen which allows several people to make observations at once.
    • 在屏幕上进行观察,它们非常舒适。
    • 放大率很高,允许观察样品细节。
    • 与其他显微镜相比,这种类型显微镜提供的图像非常精确。
    • 也可以拍摄或拍摄观察的照片。
    • 这些显微镜通常用于实验室。它们非常昂贵。
  • 你应该选择什么类型的目镜?

    Huygens eyepieces:

    • 他们有一个目镜。
    • 它们易于使用和廉价。
    • 它们适合初学者。
    • They have a reduced field of view so they are not very comfortable.

    宽野目镜:

    • 他们有更广泛的视野,更舒适。
    • 这种类型的目镜质量更高,这解释了其较高的价格。

    目镜微米:

    • With these eyepieces you can observe and compare the dimensions of samples.
    • 它们也可以与其他设备一起使用,例如物体剪辑。
    • They are primarily intended for experienced users who want to carry out in-depth observation of a sample.
  • 你应该选择什么类型的头?

    The head of a microscope is the top part that the eyepieces are attached to. Different types of heads exist:straight headsinclined heads

    直线:

    • The stage is usually fixed on these microscopes and the head is moved in order to focus.
    • They are used with monocular microscopes with a single eyepiece.
    • 直带显微镜适用于初学者和偶尔使用,因为它们不是很舒服。

    在clined head:

    • 这些显微镜配备有移动台,用户不需要在聚焦期间移动,显微镜头保持固定。
    • 带有倾斜头的显微镜比直带显微镜更昂贵,但它们也更舒适。
    • 它们旨在定期使用,可以是长时间使用的。它们更加符合人体工程学,因此更适合专业用途。
  • How to choose the objective?

    选择正确的显微镜物镜是至关重要的,以便获得样本的精确图像(即提供对象放大但不扭曲的图像。)

    The objective you choose depends first of all on the desired放大。有三种类型的放大率:

    • low magnifications (from x1 to x10)
    • medium magnifications (from x10 to x40)
    • 高放大率(以上x40)

    The objective must also render an accurate image of the observed sample and correct defects in optical systems, also known as光学像差

    There are two types of optical aberrations:色差单色像差

    色差:

    • Chromatic aberration is a color defect, the result of the decomposition of white light into different colors.
    • This decomposition results in different focuses depending on the wavelength.
    • 这意味着图像是模糊的。
    • 消色差镜片补偿这种像差并提供锐利的图像。

    单色像差:

    • Monochromatic aberration depends on geometric parameters (angle of field, pupil position) and impacts the microscope’s ability to distinguish details.
    • This means the image is curved.
    • Plan achromatic objectives设计用于校正图像平面,同时还可以补偿色差。
  • 什么是显微镜用于?

    Assembly and质量检验:

    • Assembly and quality control microscopes are used to inspect materials and finished products.
    • These microscopes are often equipped with a screen so that the items being viewed can easily be observed by several people.

    电子检查:

    • With magnification of up to 400x, stereoscopic microscopes allow you to observe and find possible manufacturing defects in objects that fit in your hand such as printed circuit boards or workpieces.

    Measurement:

    • 测量显微镜用于在样品上进行非接触式测量。通过使用远心目标,这种类型的显微镜给出了完美的平面图像,非常适合尺寸测量。其精确阶段意味着它可用于制造样品的微孔。
    • 这种类型的显微镜提供了所以rate and reliable measurements on the X, Y and Z axes.
    • 当精确非常重要时,这些显微镜特别适用于应用。

    Metallurgical:

    • Metallurgical microscopesare designed to inspect bright, flat and/or reflective materials.
    • 它们提供比立体显微镜更高的放大率。

    地质学:

    • Polarizing microscopes, also known as polarizing light microscopes, can reveal the chemical composition of many organic and inorganic materials.
    • 它们通常用于研究薄岩部分中的矿物质。
    • Other materials observable with such microscopes include cement, ceramics, polymers, crystalline molecules, starch and wood.

    laboratories和hospitals:

    • 生物显微镜主要用于实验室来检查生物样品researchor diagnostic purposes.
    • The source of light on a biological microscope always comes from underneath the stage because the samples being observed must allow the light to pass through so that, for example, blood cells or bacteria can be observed.
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