选择合适的电池

电池是由一个或多个电化学电池组成的设备,其具有与电力设备的外部连接。在本指南中,我们将涵盖各种类型的可充电电池以及不可充电(碱性)技术。

可充电电池有许多不同的形状和尺寸,从按钮单元到兆瓦系统的连接,以稳定电配电网络。使用电极和电解质材料的几种不同组合,包括铅酸,镍镉(Ni-CD),镍金属氢化镍(NiMH),锂离子(锂离子)和锂离子聚合物(Li-离子聚合物)。

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  • How to choose a battery?

    EPC电池
    EPC电池

    When choosing a battery, you should takethe following characteristicsinto account:

    • 电池容量in milliampere-hours (mAh)(calculation method provided below).
    • 由用于电极的材料决定的电压,并且可以为锂电池的3.2至4V提供1.2至2V。
    • The operating temperature.
    • The size and shape of the battery.
    • The type of use.
    • 价格。

    一种ll batteries have two common characteristics:

    • Their voltage那expressed in volts (V): rechargeable batteries are generally 12 V. For larger cells with voltages of 12 V, 24 V or 48 V, separate 2 V cells are used, intended to be assembled in series, and which have a lifespan of about 10 years.
    • 他们的能力,在安培小时(啊)表示:增加它,必须并行连接几个电池。

    当您通过容量乘以电压时,您可以获得千瓦时(kWh)中存储的电量。例如:12 V - 100 AH电池理论上包含12×100 = 1,200wh = 1.2 kWh。

    根据这些特性,您必须选择技术或电池类型和化学成分:铅酸,镍或锂。没有一个电池技术比其他电池技术更好。每种类型的电池都有自己的优势和缺点,需要电池的操作员,以选择最能满足其要求的应用程序。

    电池根据气候(环境温度)和使用类型(放电深度),电池具有预定的寿命和周期数。为了增加他们的寿命并优化他们的操作,建议遵循存储和使用建议。

  • How do you correctly calculate the size of a battery?

    In order to calculate the size of the battery you need, you will have to to calculate the expected consumption in a day and divide this sum (in watts per day) by the direct current voltage (in volts). It is not recommended to let some batteries, especially lead-acid batteries, discharge to less than 50%. To obtain the minimum power you need, divide this result (in amperes/day) by 0.5.Working in 24 V allows you to halve the power required compared to using 12 V, or even divide it by four if you work in 48 V.如果您有多个设备同时运行,则更好地拥有更多电源。

  • Why choose a lithium battery?

    Panasonic lithium batteries
    Panasonic lithium batteries

    一种锂电池是一种电化学蓄能器,其使用锂作为化学元素。含有锂的任何材料都可以是锂离子电池的基础。It is therefore very difficult to speak generally about this type of battery as high-volume markets (i.e. cameras, mobile phones, etc.) and high-energy markets (i.e. hybrid or electric vehicles, aeronautics, etc.) do not have the same needs in terms of lifespan, cost or power.

    有不同类型的锂电池:

    • 锂离子(锂离子)very stable batteries with a very high energy density (the highest on the market)
    • 锂聚合物(Li-Po)this lithium-ion technology uses a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte. This electrolyte is formed by semi-solid polymers with high conductivity. This is promising dry technology.
    • Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)这种电池的能量密度低于其他技术,但它提供出色的寿命和安全性。这些电池是应急电源(UPS)的理想选择。

    优点:

    • 高能量密度,降低了电池的重量和体积。
    • 低维护。
    • Rechargeable.
    • Long lifespan.
    • Very low self-discharge.
    • Wide variety of shapes.
    • Limited memory effect.

    Disadvantages:

    • More expensive than other types of technology.
    • 需要保护电路,因为它们是危险的。
    • Strict regulations for transportation.
    • 即使没有使用也磨损。

    Cycles:在100%放电时提供约1,300个循环。

    一种pplications (all types of lithium batteries):

    • 可以存储太阳能和风能。
    • Can store electric energy.
    • 自治区:ications (lighting of public spaces, parking meters, security cameras, radar speed signs, traffic lights, etc.).
    • 移动性(电动自行车,电动车[公用事业欧工业],机器人,航空,无人机,船只等)
    • 便携式能量(电池,转换器,电源包)。
  • 为什么选择铅电池?

    一种UNILEC lead battery
    一种UNILEC lead battery

    There are two types oflead batteries

    • 铅酸电池打开用硫酸电解质diluted with water。This type of battery is characterized by the fact that they are reliable and use a technology that has been well-known since the 19th century and is well mastered.These batterieshave the disadvantage of being influenced by temperature changes. They also require regular maintenance (refilling with distilled water), as their electrolyte evaporates over time.
    • 铅酸电池关闭with a gel electrolyte. They have the advantage of being maintenance-free and easy to handle (no leaks) with stability that’s perfectly controlled by the manufacturer. They generally provide about 400 cycles at 80% discharge.

    优点:

    • 可靠性。
    • Good lifespan.
    • 没有记忆效应。
    • 廉价。
    • Low self-discharge rate, 5 to 10% per month

    Disadvantages:

    • 重。
    • 低自治权。
    • 对寒冷敏感。
    • 需要定期维护(only开放电池)。
    • 能量密度低。

    应用程序:

    • Industry.
    • 铁路和汽车车辆(包括卡车),飞机,卫星等设备。
  • 为什么选择镍电池?

    CHANGHONG nickel battery
    CHANGHONG nickel battery

    镍金属混合电池,称为尼姆batterieshave almost entirely replacedNi-Cd镍镉电池because they are less harmful for the environment. The presence of cadmium in Ni-Cd batteries poses problems for recycling batteries at the end of their life. NiMH batteries have high energy density and can be completely discharged without affecting their lifespan.

    它们具有低容量的缺点,这使得它们更适合于便携式设备,其中电池寿命很少超过几个小时。它们通常在80%放电时提供500至700个循环。

    NI-CD电池的优点:

    • Very long lifespan, up to 20 years.
    • 可以承受极端温度(-20°C至+ 40°C)。
    • Low internal resistance: high energy density, combined with fast charging capacity.
    • 比铅电池轻。

    镍镉电池的缺点:

    • More expensive.
    • Pollutant: both nickel and cadmium are toxic. Battery disposal/recycling processes are expensive.
    • 记忆效果,电池必须在充电之前完全放电。
    • 一种verage autonomy.

    NIMH电池的优点:

    • 类似于Ni-CD。
    • 从记忆效果中遭受较少。
    • 更好的自治。

    Disadvantages of NiMH batteries:

    • More expensive.
    • 受自我放电。
  • 为什么选择碱性电池?

    CHANGHONG alkaline battery
    CHANGHONG alkaline battery

    The most commonalkaline batteriesare zinc manganese dioxide (Zn-MnO2) and lithium manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2). Alkaline batteries are mainly used for domestic purposes. The main formats are cylindrical (LR3, LR6, LR14, LR20) and button cell. Due to their size and weight, alkaline batteries are widely used in low-power portable devices such as remote controls, flashlights, clocks, toys, etc.

    优点:

    • 廉价。
    • Reasonable energy density.
    • 可用。

    Disadvantages:

    • 碱性电池通常不会充电。
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